What are the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

Shortness of breath. Shortness of breath, easy fatiguability, muscle weakness, chronic cough, repeated infections, lower extremity swelling, and so on.
Shortness of Breath. The short answer is shortness of breath and decreased exercise capacity - some will also develop trouble clearing secretions and chronic/repeat infections sometimes requiring hospitalizations. If COPD progresses patients can become cachetic/lose weight, suffer side effects from medications, become barrel chested or have fatigue from low oxygenation, require intubations/vent and ultimately die.