With symptoms. In the majority of cases these openings close spontaneously shortly after birth. When they remain open and interfere with adequate oxygenation and/or ventilation, exercise tolerance, etc., then surgery may be indicated. Surgery can be done minimally invasive or open.
PFO vs PDA. A hemodynamically significant PDA (with excess lung flow in a newborn) is usually closed by surgical ligation (entering from left back with slight incision and tying off pda). Nothing is usually done about a pfo as they are insignificant. If latter is large (or an asd) it may be closed by surgery or device closure (interventional cardiology).
Is it possible for a child to have a patent foramen ovale (pfo) and a patent ductis arteriosus (pda)?
Yes. It is a normal feature of the heart prior to birth and may persist in some. The PDA is usually picked up on exam, the pfo would only be accessible to advanced studies.
Can you give me more info on experience with a child who has a patent foramen ovale (pfo) and a patent ductis arteriosus (pda)?
Common. All normal fetuses have a pfo and a pda. These are connections between the "left heart" and the "right heart" that allow blood to bypass the lungs and flow properly to the placenta. Typically, in the first 24 hours after birth, the PDA closes. Pfo closure can be more gradual and can be present for many months, and still be a normal finding. Persistent patency can be a problem.
My son (age 15) just had a physical and a heart mumur - he had a electrocardiogram and found patent foramen ovale - should he have surgery to close?
Depends. A patent formen ovale is usually asymptomatic and does not require treatment, however, the issue needs to be assessed by a cardiologist to ensure that there is no other cardiac anomaly. See this site for more information. Http://www. Ncbi. Nlm. Nih. Gov/pubmedhealth/pmh0002102/.
Not necessarily. Even if he is extremely healthy, go see a pediatric cardiologist. They will do a 2d echocardiogram which will answer your questions.