Can de Quervain's tenosynovitis come back after surgery?

Yes but unlikely. The operation for dequervain's involves decompressing the first extensor compartment of the wrist. Sometimes, the two tendons in this compartment are in separate sub-compartments; if both are not decompressed, symptoms may continue. Also, if the sheath over the tendons scars back and becomes tight again, symptoms may recur, but this is rare.