Depends on problems. While the majority of premature infants do just fine, those that were particularily early or sick may manifest problems even at later ages. We even now are finding out even early term babies (37-38 weeks) may not be as smart as those that "cook" a little longer. But it does not mean things can't be overcome. Early intervention in babies/kids with problems is essential and should be ongoing!
It can. Individuals born at very early gestational ages (<28-32 weeks) can have permanent physical characteristics such as microcephaly, decreased muscle strength and/or growth, as a result of their prematurity. On the other hand, most preterm infants develop into healthy adults without any appreciable differences from term infants. While preemies require more support initially, excellent outcomes await, .