LDLHDLnotCholesterol. Several ways. Cholesterol: fat molecule manufactured by every animal cell, building block of each cell membrane (enables membrane fluidity/movement without tearing), fundamental to survival of every animal cell. Lipoproteins (proteins which transport all fats in the water outside cells) is the correct issue for artery disease (e.g. Ldl ≤400 nmol/l, HDL ≤45 µmol/l). Cholesterol ↓$, but misleading.
Tough luck. Once atherosclerosis has established in a vessel wall there is very little medication can do to significantly reduce it. On the other hand, if it is not causing symptoms now, you can stop it in its tracks by reducing your risk factors like smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity.
No easy way. Rarely do cholesterol plaques regress. There are a couple of studies showing that very high-dose statin use (crestor (rosuvastatin) or lipitor) can cause some regression of plaques, but it is incomplete and not clinically significant. Most of the time it is a matter of managing the plaques that are there to prevent them from progressing and to prevent new plaques from forming.
Yes, Several Targets. Atherosclerosis, typically starts ~age 7, is primarily driven by lipoproteins (the proteins which transport fat in the water outside cells), not cholesterol (made by every cell): optimize NMR particle test (e.g. Ldl ≤400 nmol/l, HDL ≥45 µmol/l, not cholesterol), keep hba1c low, optimal ≤5.0%, sbp ≤120 mmhg, don’t smoke, exercise, avoid sugars, etc; study: nusi. Org, taubes, attia, lustig fatchance.