Rheumatism and arthritis. Do they have the same characteristics?

Arthritis/Rheumatism. Rheumatism is an old name for nonspecific arthritic conditions. Other than rheumatic fever and rheumatic arthritis and rheumatic heart disease, which often occur together after rheumatic fever infections, "rheumatism" isn't used generally.
Yes. Rheumatism is an older term usually used to discribe aches and pains. More specifically people can have rhuematoid or osteoarthritis and their symptoms are similar.