What if your pap smear comes back abnormal? Do you just repeat it right away?

It depends. The management of an abnormal pap smear depends on whether the pap smear shows atypical cells, dysplasia or cancer. It also depends on hpv testing that is usually done with pap smears. If the pap shows atypia but is hpv negative, it can be repeated in a year. If the pap shows dysplasia or high risk hpv positive, a colposcopy is recommended, where the cervix is examined with magnification.
Depends on finding. There are many degrees of "abnormal" on a pap test. The mildest findings usually require a repeat test in 6 months to a year. The most serious findings may indicate cancer, but a biopsy would be required to make the diagnosis. The test is usually not repeated right away because doing so would not provide any new information.