What are some options for a person whose cancer is caught early?

Cure. Every type of cancer has its own unique features, however, in general, the earlier you diagnose a cancer, the higher the cure rate. Furthermore, many early cancers can be surgically removed without the need for chemotherapy. Regardless of the cancer, screening studies (which diagnose cancers before symptoms develop) save lives.
Early Cancer. Early cancer is often completely cured by excisional surgery, especially if it has not spread ("metastasized") to other parts of the body or the lymph nodes. Depending on the type of cancer, and the location, surgery may offer a definitive cure without the need for adjunct radio- or chemotherapy. Your oncologist is the best source for advice on your options.