Is 90 days of being in the sun every summer enough to get eye damage or get pingueculum?

Possibly. It is not clear what starts pinguecula, but they are stimulated by sun, wind and dust exposure as well as heredity. So being in the sun as often as you describe can make them more prominent. Sun exposure is a known risk for cataracts and might also affect macular degeneration later in life. It can also encourage the formation of skin cancers of the lids. So protect yourself with sunscreens.
Definitely. One good sunburn is enough to cause significant sun damage. Every time you are out in the sun it is important to use sunscreen and sunglasses. Pinguecula will also be made worse with dusty and windy conditions.