This is probably age-related cataracts, maybe, as I'm older; but what are the other kinds of cataracts?

Cataracts. Cataracts (a white lens change): most often due to/made worse by (most common first): aging, genetics predisposition, excessive sun exposure, smoking, diabetes, steroid medication, previous trauma, inflammation, infection in the eye causing inflammation; previous intraocular eye surgery; other genetic conditions; can be congenital; more info:
Yes, many types. Childhood onset, congenital (there at birth), diabetic, steroid induced etc etc etc!
Many types. Cataracts, a cloudiness of the natural lens of the eye, typically progress with age. However, there are many types of earlier onset cataracts such as congenital cataract, traumatic cataract, steroid (or medication) induced cataract and many others.