For an effect. The receptor is the area on the surface of a cell to which a hormone binds in order for the hormone to have an effect on the cell. For example, estrogen binds to its receptor on or in the cell and then the cell changes its behavior in response to the estrogen. Most hormones won't do anything unless they first bind to a cell receptor.
There is one. The only available member of this family is Pegvisomant (somavert). By blocking the action of the growth hormone molecules, this compound is able to control disease activity of acromegaly in virtually all patients.
Yes. There is a drug called Pegvisomant (somavert) that works by directly blocks the effects of growth hormone, and has been shown to improve symptoms of acromegaly. There are two other drugs that are less specific in binding but can also be used to treat acromegaly: bromocriptine and octreotide. These are highly specialized drugs that should be prescribed by a physician.
Breast cancer? In the context of breast cancer, it is a good thing. It means there are markers on teh cell surface for the estrogen or prgesterone receptors. This means you can be treated with specific medicine and potends a better overall prognosis.
ER/PR. The two steroid receptors checked on breast cancers are the estrogen (er) and Progesterone (pr) receptors. If present, the tumor is considered hormone sensitive/dependent/responsive and generally is less aggressive than receptor negative tumors. This also allows the use of hormonal therapy (tam, ais) as systemic therapy instead of or in addition to chemotherapy.
Local. Adenosine has a very short half life (only a few seconds). It is not in that sense a "circulating hormone". It's effects are mainly local and produced by cells, including heart muscle. It's production increases when there is need for increased circulation and blood flow to the heart, such as physical stress.
? I am sorry, I am not sure what you are asking. Could you rephrase the question so that I might be able to help you?
Not necessarily.. Most (younger) women with lymph node (+) disease will benefit from traditional chemotherapy. However, the molecular biology of a breast cancer is probably more pertinent than the anatomic staging. Therefore, women w/estrogen (+), her2/neu (-) cancer and microscopic lymph node involvement will have an oncotype-dx test; if the recurrence score is low, traditional chemotherapy may be omitted.
D/W oncologist. Treatment will depend not only the stage but also the biology of the cancer- whether it is estrogen positive, her2neu positive, whether it is lymph node positive or not. Also depends on your preference and overall health condition. Different test like oncotype dx, mammaprint can give you more info-re- recurrence risk of cancer and will be helpful in choosing the right therapy for you. D/w your md.
Is there a benefit to chemotherapy in hormone receptor positive, node positive postmenopausal breast cancer?
Yes. There is a defined benefit of chemotherapy plus an aromatase inhibitor compared to an aromatase inhibitor alone, but it is small. The decision to use chemotherapy in this setting is dependent on whether the tumor is her2/neu +, the stage of the tumor, and the age and health of the patient. All decisions regarding adjuvent therapy hinge around the risks vs. Benefits, which is patient-dependent.
Often. There is increasing data based on the oncotype DX test in women with 1-3 positive notes that shows that some women will not get much benefit from chemo and some will get a great deal. It can be useful in cases where a woman is reluctant to take chemo. This is done on tissue that has been already removed. Most oncologists believe that women who have multiple positive nodes should get chemotherapy.