When does eating disorder cause ruptured esophagus?

Pressure. More specifically, the particular type of eating disorder called bulimia is associated with a tear in the esophagus due the pressure from inducing vomiting. This can cause something called a mallory-weiss tear and can be fatal.
Acid. Purging (self-induced vomiting), characteristic of bulimia, causes stomach acid to deposit in the esophagus. This would erode and eventually rupture the esophagus.
Eating DO. Inflammation of esophagus can occur with frequent self-induced vomiting or chronic cases but rupture is rare.

Related Questions

Is it possible that a person survive a ruptured esophagus due to an eating disorder?

Serious problem. A ruptured esophagus, also called boerhaave's syndrome, is a life-threatening and often fatal problem that occurs due to excessive vomiting. Patients who self-induce vomiting/purging are at risk. This is not the same as a laceration or mallory-weis tear. Without treatment boerhaave's syndrome is almost always fatal. Read more...