Ruptured esophagus. With proper urgent medical attention, yes.
Serious problem. A ruptured esophagus, also called boerhaave's syndrome, is a life-threatening and often fatal problem that occurs due to excessive vomiting. Patients who self-induce vomiting/purging are at risk. This is not the same as a laceration or mallory-weis tear. Without treatment boerhaave's syndrome is almost always fatal.
Eating DO. Inflammation of esophagus can occur with frequent self-induced vomiting or chronic cases but rupture is rare.
Pressure. More specifically, the particular type of eating disorder called bulimia is associated with a tear in the esophagus due the pressure from inducing vomiting. This can cause something called a mallory-weiss tear and can be fatal.
Acid. Purging (self-induced vomiting), characteristic of bulimia, causes stomach acid to deposit in the esophagus. This would erode and eventually rupture the esophagus.