Yes. There are different types of rejection and grades of severity. A number of clinical factors determine the management. Usually this involves adjustment of immunosuppressive therapy.
Yes. It's very complicated. Transplant patients need to be cared by doctors at transplant centers with experience treating all post transplant issues.
Shortness of breath. I think you are interested in symptoms and not signs. It is usually shortness of breath. The signs of rejection is usually what your pulmonologist finds in bronchoscopy and biopsy and frequently by ct scan where they can start seeing evidence. Most important test is pfts.
No easy answer. Rejection after any transplant can be caused be the body recognizing the transplant as foreign (not belonging). Your body will always be fighting against the lungs but the medication you take will help your body accept the organs. Talk to your pulmonologist and your nurse practitioner about what they what you to look for. You are very lucky to have received a transplant so congratulations.
Symptoms. Most commonly there are clinical signs and symptoms related to declining lung function. These include shortness of breath, cough, decline in how much you can exercise and fever. Respiratory infections can be a risk factor. Flu vaccination, avoiding ill contacts and hand hygiene are preventive measures. The episodes are treatable and an increased dose of immunosuppressive agents are usually rxd.
Get on list. The first step is to find out if you need a lung transplant. Second would be to find out if you would benefit from one. The third would be to get on a transplant list. Next would come waiting until organs became available. The path starts with visiting your pulmonary doctor or primary physician and asking about it.
Transplant center. You need to go to a lung transplant center who can evaluate you for the need and candidacy of a lung transplant. They will determine if you are a candidate for single or double lung transplant.
Yes. Double lung transplant is often done for patients with pulmonary hypertension or cystic fibrosis.
Yes. Not rare.
Multiple risks. Risks can be extensive, but when you are a candidate for a lung transplant, it means your lung function is quite poor and your long term chances of survival are better with the risks of transplant. These include respiratory failure, bleeding, infection, need for prolonged mechanical ventilation, cardiac dysfunction and arrythmias, stroke, rejection of your organs, and death among others.
Center can provide. The decision to have a lung transplantation is complex. There are numerous complications that can occur, but many patients do well. The one year survival following transplantation is typically 90% at most centers. Your transplant center can provide their complication rate and survival statistics to you for your child's particular lung disease, age and condition.
Good. The quality of life tends to be very favorable after lung transplantation compared to before the transplant. You should be able to walk without the need of oxygen and you r exercise tolerance should also improve. You have to consider, though, that you are going to have frequent visit to the doctor and need many medications.
Improved for most. For most patients, quality of life improves substantially, and patients resume activities that they enjoy. There are many precautions such as avoiding open soil, medication monitoring and frequent visits to your physician, as they monitor for infections and signs of rejection.
Yes. All transplant recipients who take immunosuppressant medications are at increased risk of pneumonia. Lung transplant recipients are at the highest risk of all, particularly from pneumonia caused by viruses or funguses.
Yes. After a lung transplant, the patient is going to be immunosuppressed. That means that the immune system is not going to able to react and defend itself against organisms that cause pneumonias. Thus, you have to be careful and try to avoid contact with people who are sick and avoid large crowds were people do not know that they can make you sick.
CF. That would depend on the condition of the patient prior to the transplant and other conditions the patient suffers from. For example if he or she suffers from diabetes then life expectancy would be less. Best to talk directly with a surgeon or transplant center to get their mortality results.