Fellowship. Neonatology is a fellowship after a residency in pediatrics.
Neonatology. Neonatologists do a full 3-year pediatric residency program. They then do an additional 3-year fellowship in neonatology. They are especially trained to care for the sickest newborn babies, including very premature ones. They are the physicians who provide medical care in high-level neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).