Do neonatologists do different work than a well trained pediatrician?

Neonatologost. A neonatologist is also a pediatrician who specializes in care and of newborns and their illnesses. Since neonatologists have more experience taking care of newborns, they have a "skill" advantage compared to regular pediatricians.
Yes. Neonatologists do a full pediatric 3-year residency program. They then do an additional 3-year fellowship in neonatology. They are especially trained to care for the sickest newborn babies, including very premature ones. They are the physicians who provide medical care in high-level neonatal intensive care units (nicus).