Not in 400 Letters. Essentially, sepsis is a response to a bacterial infection that spreads to the blood stream, and thus the whole body. In neonatal sepsis, a bacterium is transmitted to the newborn at or around the time of birth, and because of an immature immune system, it spreads to affect all organ systems. It can cause significant damage to the organs because of decreased blood pressure and inflammation.
Infection and age. Neonate is a baby from birth to the 1st 30 days of life. Sepsis is overwhelming infection and its attendant manifestations including respiratory failure. Any infection that is overwhelming from any cause within the first 30 days of life is neonatal sepsis.
Neonatal sepsis. No it is caused from infection and has nothing to do with ABO incompatibilty.
Several. There are several risk factors that doctors of neonates look for: a fever in the mother during labor, other signs of infection of the amniotic fluid, premature birth, low apgar score at 5 minutes, signs of fetal distress, group b strep colonization of the mother, and ruptured membranes more than 18 hours.
Changing. Currently that is changing, probably due to preventive measures for group b streptococcus (gbs), which has been the leading cause for decades. Escherchia coli has taken over as the leading cause in premature babies while gbs still leads in full term neonates.
Several items. There are several levels of the evaluation and management of neonatal sepsis. Sepsis can be suspected, presumed, or proven depending on the situation and degree of risk or confirmation (positive blood tests, x-rays, spinal fluid tests, & cultures). Careful monitoring, antibiotics, and supportive measures like respiratory support, shock treatment, ivs, & temperature support may all be necessary.
Prevention. By assuring good maternal health, through prenatal testing for group b strep and treatment, herpes testings etc. Also by following guidelines regarding prolonged rupture of membranes, neonatal feves and such helps decrease the risks. Having adequate prenatal and neonatal care is important.
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Yes. Jaundice is one of multiple physical signs noticed in neonatal sepsis. However, jaundiced newborn without other suspicious physical signs (otherwise healthy) is very unlikely to have neonatal sepsis, especially so in term newborns.
Can be. If there is liver injury from the infection or from low blood pressure (shock liver).