I hear people talk about pain management doctors. What exactly do they do?

Good ones. Perform a comprehensive evaluation of your painful condition and develop a plan to further evaluate the condition if needed, as well as a treatment plan to address the pain. Treatment may include counseling and lifestyle modification to medications, interventional injections and surgical consultation if needed. Any doctor can call themselves a pain management specialist, so beware.
Manage Pain. Pain management doctors focus on the causes and problems related to chronic pain, which can occur for many reasons. These doctors focus on ways to help people manage this pain so that they can function as well as possible in their daily lives.