Radiosurgery. And catheter directed embolization. See aneurysmfoundation. Org for good info.
Depends. This depends on location and size. There are 3 general approaches: surgical excision, radiation therapy, and observation. The last is reserved for those that are too large, or the patient is medically unable to tolerate surgery. Surgery is the definitive treatment and is ideal for avms that are <5cm and in non-eloquent regions. Radiation (focused) is effective (after 2 years) for small, deep avms.
Several types. Depending on the size, location, and particular anatomy of the avm, treatments could include: embolization, radiosurgery, open brain surgery, or a combination of these treatments.
Not at all. There are four different ways to treat avms: 1) observation, 2) embolization, 3) radiosurgery, 4) microsurgery. Embolization with particles or glue is one tool that we have to treat avm. Smaller avms can be treated with microsurgery or radiosurgery, while larger avms can benefit from multiple types of treatment. The anatomical details are critically important to decide the best approach.
Maybe. Treat depends on size and location and includes artery and vein work as well as radiation.
No. Avms are best treated via a multispecialty approach depending on the size and location. When you speak about through the arteries-that is embolization, putting in a special type of glue to block the feeders. This is usually followed by surgery or focused radiation to obliterate the residual. If the avm is small, it may be treated directly with radiation or surgery.
Not "ALL" The treatment of avms is should involve mutliple specialists these days. Some of the more recent research suggests that treatment through the arteries is dangerous but it is important to realize that many of those treatments did not involve a team of doctors treating the patients. Make sure you involve an experienced team of mds in treatment recommendations regarding your avm.
Hemorrhage. Most of the damage of an arteriovenous malformation occurs when the blood vessel or vessels are spontaneously ruptured and bleed into the brain, causing pressure and damage to the brain. The same can occur with an av malformation in the brain stem or spine.
Multiple ways. The avm can compress nearby tissue and cause a stroke, or interfere with blood flow and also create tissue damage. If rupture occurs there can be a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with both local and more widespread problems. Brain avm's may cause seizures. Small avm's are unlikely to be an issue, but rarely, the ones in the spinal cord can cause paralysis.
Often none. Unless it leaks, there would be no symptoms in most cases. Leaking can cause intense headache or stroke-like symptoms such as focal weakness, loss of speech or vision. Avm discovered after a minor stroke can be corrected before a major stroke. Family history of avm may prompt investigation in someone with no symptoms.
Congenital. An avm is a congenital malformation of brain and possibly spinal blood vessels. They predispose those that have them to neurologic symptoms and, potentially, bleeding. A thorough neurosurgical evaluation is essentially if an avm is suspected.
Localized deficits. A brain AVM is a connection of arteries directly to veins, without going through capilaries. When the flow increases it can produce a 'steal' effect by taking blood from surrounding tissue, resulting in an abnormality of brain fuction controled by the area of the 'steal'. another manifestation is a result of bleeding of the aVM.
Location. All depend of the location, the clinical manifestations, the type of avm.... But in general are not big deal...
Bleed risk. The overall risks of bleeding are 3-4% yearly. Each bleed episode carries a 25% risk of mortality. Overall risk of dying is therefore 1% yearly.
Depends. It can be deadly serious or incidental - depending on the type and location. You should see a neurosurgeon to determine which one you have and what it needs for treatment.
AVM repair-complex. Arteriovenous malformation (avm) of the brain is a complex "tangle" of arteries and veins. Treatment is complex and multispecialty. If the avm is small, one can consider radiosurgery (ie. Gamma knife), that leads to a high obliteration rate 2-3 years after treatment. If it is large, one would start with angiogram-embolization (blocking feeders with glue) followed by neurosurgery. Location is key.
Abnormal vasculature. These abnormal vessels have an increased risk of bleeding. They are treated by open surgery when they are excised, by embolizationby going through blood vessels or by a combination of both. Different methods depends on the size and or location in the brain.
Can depend... Depending on the location (face, trunk, extremities) and level (superficial, deep) and degree of symptoms from the "shunting" of blood from the arteries to the veins the treatment can vary. Thorough imaging (ultrasound, mri, arteriogram) is needed to figure this out. Treatment can involve surgery but more often today relies on injecting chemicals directly into the avm to clog it up.
Studies... Angiography can detect the majority of vascular lesions; although a good number of them are detected while undergoing numerous other procedures for other things (ct scans, ultrasounds, etc.).
CTA, MRAngio. The gold standard to diagnose a-v malformations and vascular anomalies is an angiogram. This may be a ctangio, mrangio or selective digital substraction angiography.