No. It is secondary to the deficiency of iron or some vitamins or some of the genetic or inherited problems.
Usually not... Anemia can be caused by medications, auto-antibodies, iron deficiency (diet issues), bleeding, cancer, and inherited conditions (for example sickle cell disease). The only "contagious" cause i can think of are viruses. Viruses can sometimes transiently suppress the bone marrow's ability to make red blood cells (parvovirus for exmaple, though there are many).