I have been rubbing my eyes for months due to poorly fitted contact lenses. Could this have caused floaters?

Floaters. Possibly. It sounds as if you have had a posterior vitreous detachment. This is a situation where the vitreous (jelly) of the eye detaches (not a retinal detachment), it then "crumples" up leaving dots, spots, strands of blurry vitreous; i.e. The "floater". You should have an exam to ensure the incident did not tear the retina, which could lead to a retinal detachment.
Could be, or aging. Yes, but probably aging. There's a clear gel between your retina and lens, almost all water and a little collagen, that helps eyeball keep its shape. Little bits break off and float around on occasion. What you see is the shadow of these bits on your retina. If you suddenly see lots of them appearing out of nowhere accompanied by flashes of light, seek emergency help, your retina may be detaching.