If you have had cataract surgery, how did it affect your ability to work?

Should not. Cataract surgery should not affect your ability to work. You should be able to return to a normal work schedule and activities in 24-48 hours.
Depends. On how severe the cataract was, and therefore on the amount of swelling that results after. May just be a day or two, or can be a couple of weeks in severe cases.