Is there a type of color blindness where a person has trouble distinguishing shades of blue?

Yes. There are two situations in which the blue sensitive cones do not work properly dichromacy is the most severe with complete loss of blue perception. Tritanopia (blue deficient: s cone absent) anomalous trichromacy tritanomaly (blue deficient: s cone defect) the most common color deficiency is red–green (overall) 7 to 10% of the male population.