Probably not. Too large an amount of a chromium supplement can have a variety of ill effects, but increasing sugar in the urine is not likely one of them. There are some studies that suggest chromium may help lower blood sugar, which would lower the chances of blood sugar showing up in the urine (gliycosuria). Of note, not all studies have shown benefit from chromium.
No. No, chromium is not associated with glucosuria. Glucosuria is due to increased blood sugar levels from diabetes.