Can eating a lot of fruits cause prediabetes or diabetes?

No. Food does not cause pre-diabetes or full diabetes. Overweight does. In pre-diabetics or diabetics the mechanism to keep the glucose levels under the normal range in the blood is lost. Many theories try to explain this like autoimmunity causing Insulin resistance.
Risk factors. The causes are not clearly known. There are certain factors which may lead to diabetes. Virus infections can lead to diabetes. If it runs in your family, you are obese, smoke cigarettes, had gestational diabetes or had a baby weighing 9 or more pounds, have impaired glucose tolerance, do not exercise regularly, low HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides, high blood pressure you are at high risk.
Sweet fruits can. Read this short article: Easy recipes: