Can one be sedated or given pain medication if pelvic exams are painful?

Not usually. A pelvic exam really should not be painful, if it is then that tells the examiner that something is wrong, and that needs to be investigated. Some patients have pain just with touch in the genital area, that may be a reflex response that relates to past experiences, it needs to be dealt with so a patient can have sexual relations. I have never sedated a patient for a normal exam.