Can laser tattoo removal cause keloids?

Yes. Depending on the location of the tatto ie should or chest and the tendency of your skin to get keloids it is possible.
Yes. If you are typically form keloids with scars than it may occur here as well. If not it would not be likely. The treatment will break the skin and while it not all heals without long term issue, keloid is a risk of the treatment.
Possibly. In the early stages the risk is very low to develop a keloid. In the later stages when the ink load is very low and the fluence or laser energy high there is more injury to the dermis which could possibly cause keloid scar formation I base my own patients on the severity of keloids formed if they for them with minor injury or ear piercing then no laser tattoo removal.