Diabetes and kidney. In relation to diabetes it means that the diabetes has not been well controlled and the kidney has been damaged enough to leak protein. Albuminuria is also present in as number of kidney diseases that are not related to diabetes.
MANY. Albuminuria is simply the finding of protein in the urine. Particularly an ubiquitous plasma protein called albumin. There are many chronic and many acute diseases, as well as temporary and permanent conditions that can cause it. Every particular case needs to be taken in context. Infections, hypertension, chronic renal disease are just some examples.