Mostly infection. Very rare infection of epiglottis, flap of elastic cartilage tissue covered with mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx, blocking entrance of food into airway when swallowing. Since vaccination for hemophilus influenza even rarer.Most common organism causing epiglottitis now is streptococcus pneumoniae. Other organisms include parainfluenzae, varicella-zoster, herpes simplex.
Please see below. In epiglottitis, the epiglottis (which comes off the back of the tongue deep in the throat) and surrounding area is infected with bacteria and swollen. Symptoms can include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever, muffled voice, and airway obstruction (life-threatening). If you suspect epiglottitis in someone, they need to be seen at the hospital immediately.