How can I effectively communicate with my doctor in 5 minutes?

Like 400-char limit! We can't fit decades of professional training & experience into a tweet, and you can't fit your lifetime of experience, background, current symptoms and questions into 5 minutes (much less share all that & have time for us to answer)! :-) welcome to our imperfect healthcare system. Advocate for yourself & your family, and don't be afraid to tell your doc you have more questions and need more time.
List . When your sick is not a good time to communicate about anything. Make a list of issues and questions before you attend the consultation. Also have an up to date medical hsitory and medication list - this saves a ton of time.
Maybe. Depends on where the injury is located and to what extent you are willing to subject yourself to surgery and recovery for what is mos likely a minimal injury and may have no log term effects.
Minimal . This is a common surgical procedure and has minimal side effects. Most pain is easily controlled by prescription meds for a day or two and then otc meds. Many people can just take otc meds.
Think ahead. Write it down. Your symptoms, your concerns, your questions. If you aren't getting the time you need, find a different doctor. There are still some listeners out there.