How do the parathyroid glands work?

Regulates calcium. They make parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates the body's calcium and phosphate levels. These levels are important for normal nerve and muscle function. PTH tells bone to break down and release calcium into the blood. In the gut, it converts vitamin D to its active form which absorbs more calcium. It also tells kidneys to allow less calcium and phosphate to leave the body through urine.
Calcium regulation. The parathyroid glands are continously checking the calcium level in the blood. If the level drops too low, the gland produces more parathyroid hormone (pth), which has several actions to promote calcium coming into the blood. The gland also contains c cells, which make a separate hormone, calcitonin, which has some effects on bone metabolism.

Related Questions

What are the parathyroid glands?

Parathyroid Glands. The parathyroid glands are 4 small groups of tissue that sit behind the thyroid gland. They make parathyroid hormone or PTH which is involved in calcium metabolism. Too much PTH causes the calcium level in the blood to go up. An overactive parathyroid gland is often diagnosed when a routine blood test shows a high calcium level. Read more...
Parathyroid glands. He parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, which are usually located in variable manner on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland, or, in rare cases, within the thyroid gland itself or in the chest (mediastinum) or even the thymus.[1] parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in the blood an. Read more...
Endocrine glands. Normally four glands - two on each side of the neck with secrete parathyroid hormone and control the blood calcium. Read more...

Where does parathyroid glands locate in our body?

Behind thyroid. There are 4 parathyroid glands located behind and at the edges of the thyroid gland in the neck. Read more...
In the neck. The parathyroid gland is located in the middle anterior (front) of the neck and these little teardrop looking glands lay on top of the thyroid gland. Read more...

What happens if one of your parathyroid glands is damaged?

Three more remaining. There are four parathyroid glands situated in the neck, behind the thyroid gland -- two on left and two on right, usually a few centimeters apart. These glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH) that control calcium and bone metabolism. Usually only 0.5 to 1 parathyroid is sufficient to make enough pth. If 3 to 3.5 glands are damaged or removed, the body can still maintain PTH and calcium control. Read more...
Redundancy. You only need one functioning parathyroid to lead a healthy normal life. This anatomical fact makes thyroid surgery largely safe. Sometimes parathyroids can be removed or damaged during thyroidectomy. Read more...

What complications come in romoving th parathyroid glands?

Low blood calcium. If one parathyroid gland is removed complications are unusual. If all 4 glands are removed blood calcium levels develop immediately and if untreated lead to tingling and cramps and occasionally a seizure. A nerve supplying a vocal cord could also be damaged and cause hoarseness. Read more...
Some. Parathyroid surgery risks include anesthesia, bleeding, infection, scar, injury to nerve that moves vocal cord, need for further surgery/failure to remove all necessary glands, and need for oral supplementation. In experienced hands, this is minimized. Ask your surgeon their experience with this procedure. Read more...

What are the main complications happen in parathyroid glands?

Hormone changes. The parathyroid glands produce a hormone called pth. The production of this hormone is controlled by the serum levels of calcium. If the production become independent of the calcium level due to a benign tumor of the gland, overproduction occurs. If the glands are injured through radiation or surgery of other means, low production may result. Read more...
Enlarged or absent. Parathyroid glands (one or more) may enlarge and cause a high blood calcium and lead to kidney stones and bone loss. If high enough symptoms may occur such as mental changes, constipation, frequent urination and weakness. In kidney failure parathyroid glands enlarge but often the blood calcium is low. Absence of parathyroid glands most often is due to thyroid surgery. The blood calcium is low. Read more...

What are the hormones secreted by parathyroid glands?

Parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands secrete a substance called parathyroid hormone. This hormone is heavily involved in calcium metabolism. Calcium is vital to proper functioning of the heart, muscles, nerves, and bones. Read more...
Parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands secrete parathyrid hormone. This hormone is important in keeping calcium levels stable in the blood. It does this by removing calcium from bone, activating vitamin d and increasing calcium removal from the urine (so less calcium is lost in the urine). Read more...