Safe, Effective. From the largest scientific study to date examining safety (2014): "Cross-sex hormone treatment of transgender adults leads to very few long-term side effects." http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/827713 As I understand it, the risks become those associated w/ the hormones, themselves - the same risks cisgender persons face. Also, cross-sex hormone treatments can help reduce gender dysphoria.
Not all answers in! Limited research has been done in this population. In my experience, trans patients do very well - and may live happier, healthier lives with transition! just be sure to stop smoking, continue to get regular medical care, and take good care of yourself. In my opinion, when brain and body are synchronous, many things improve. Get care from an experienced provider, though. Check the wpath website.
Very unlikely. As you also need the underlying breast tissue to produce milk. Read more...