Tradional CABG. A traditional cabg, involves using the heart-lung machine to sustain circulation while the heart is stopped so it can be operated on. Saphenous vein and an artery from the inside of the chest wall (lima) are used to bypass the blocked part of the coronary arteries. When the bypass grafts are completed, the heart will naturally start beating again.
Surgical operation. This operation uses arteries and veins as bypass grafts to bring blood into the coronary arteries beyond blockages and keep the heart muscle well supplied with blood.
Varies. This requires a detailed consultation with a cardiologist to adequately answer.
Severe. Generally the more disease the more likely we are to do bypass rather than multiple stents. This is not a universal truth however.
In yr case moot poin. If you have had CABG (bypass) then by definition you have coronary artery disease. SO it is not surprising that your native arteries have "calcifications" = hardened cholesterol. Given your history, you ought to be on optimal medical therapy, statins, ASA, beta-blocker, etc. To keep your bypass grafts patent.
Ca is a sign of CAD. About 20% of plaque in the coronary arteries is calcified. Presence of calcium in the coronaries is a very sensitive indicator of the presence of coronary artery disease, even in its earliest stages, In your case, you would be expected to have calcification in your coronary arteries, since you have known blockages that required bypass surgery in the past.
Endarterectomy. Endarterectomy refers to a procedure wherein a surgical plane of resection of the inner lining of a diffuse narrowed blood vessel is undertaken. This improves the blood flow. Because of the diffuse involvement however there is a greater risk of recurrent narrowings there.
Very common. Approximately 1 million/yr. Medicare pays about 6.5 billion/yr.
Very common. Coronary artery bypass grafting is one of the most common surgical procedures in usa.
CABG. Coronary bypass is an operation that takes blood vessels from the chest wall or legs and uses them to shunt blood around obstructed heart arteries to get blood downstream from the obstructions. It is called bypass because it bypasses the blocked place in the vessel.
Relief of angina. This is a "detour" created to get blood past a blockage of an artery to supply the heart muscle. It is done to relieve angina, and in some specific circumstances, to prevent heart attacks and death.
CABG. Operation to restore blood supply to blocked or narrowed arteries supplying blood to heart muscle.
Rerouting of blood. A coronary artery bypass brings more blood to the heart muscle by connecting a new tube (vein or artery) past a blockage in an artery on the heart.