Back surgery. Common types include microdiskectomy (disk herniation removal), laminectomy (remove bone spur pressure by unroofing spine), these are usually outpatient. Lumbar fusion can be done by different techniques (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, posterior lif), extreme lateral interbody fusion (xlif) is often done for revision or deformity surgery. Most fusions use rods, screws, cages, bone graft.
Spinal stenosis. The most common back surgery is a laminectomy for lumbar nerve root compression, either from a herniated disc or from arthritic spinal stenosis. Other forms of surgery are more specific to spinal issues including multiple variants of spinal fusion procedures. Treatment for osteoporoctic fractures, such as kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty, are also quite common.