5 doctors weighed in:

Are there any birth defects that are always associated with retardation?

5 doctors weighed in
Dr. Jay Park
Pediatrics
3 doctors agree

In brief: Genetic anomalies

Chromosomal abnormalities are major known causes for mental retardation.
Down syndrome and fragile x syndrome are well known examples.

In brief: Genetic anomalies

Chromosomal abnormalities are major known causes for mental retardation.
Down syndrome and fragile x syndrome are well known examples.
Dr. Jay Park
Dr. Jay Park
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Dr. Richard Roberts
Clinical Genetics

In brief: Actual birth defect

The term "birth defect" is usually applied to unusual physical features.
There are 2 causes. 1) a problem not due to physical forces outside of the fetus, termed malformation. 2) a problem due to physical forces which have acted upon a previously normal fetus, called deformations. The squashed-appearing face of an infant with prolonged lack of adequate amniotic fluid is an example of 2).

In brief: Actual birth defect

The term "birth defect" is usually applied to unusual physical features.
There are 2 causes. 1) a problem not due to physical forces outside of the fetus, termed malformation. 2) a problem due to physical forces which have acted upon a previously normal fetus, called deformations. The squashed-appearing face of an infant with prolonged lack of adequate amniotic fluid is an example of 2).
Dr. Richard Roberts
Dr. Richard Roberts
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1 comment
Dr. Richard Roberts
A genetic abnormality may be X-linked, autosomal dominant, or recessive, and individual genetic disorders may always cause intellectual disability, and others do sometimes. Down syndrome is not a birth defect; it is associated with many--about half have a heart defect. There are varying frequencies of other defects. A very few have normal adult intelligence.
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