Several symptoms.. A (p)persistent (d)ductus (a) allows blood to be shunted from the aorta to the pulmonary artery therefore causing more blood to go to the lungs. If the PDA is large, the increased blood flow to the lungs will determine a faster rate and work of breathing, the heart will enlarge and failure to thrive (grow appropriately). A PDA can and should be closed by a cardiologist or surgeon.
It varies. Children with patent ductus arteriosus (pda) may be entirely asymptomatic (often diagnosed by a typical heart murmur) or they may have signs and symptoms of congesitve heart failure secondary to a left-to-right shunt. These symptoms may include a fast heart rate, fast, abnormal breathing, and failure to gain weight appropriately. The symptoms depend on the size of the PDA and degree of shunting.
Fetal structure. A patent ductus arteriosus (pda) is a small vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta during fetal life. Once the umbilical cord is cut and we are exposed to an oxygen rich environment that vessel should "shrivel up" and become an unobtrusive ligament. In some people it never closes and in some it will need to be addressed.
Ductus Arteriosus. A ductus arteriosus is a vessel that allows babies to survive while in utero... It allows blood to bypass the lungs which are full of amniotic fluid and get to the placenta where gas exchange occurs. A patent ductus arteriosus is simply a vessel that has not closed (patent) once born the lungs relax and the pressures fall. As such, extra blood goes to the lungs, inefficient work for the heart.
PDA. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent opening between two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening, called the ductus arteriosus, is a normal part of a baby's circulatory system before birth that usually closes shortly after birth. If it remains open, however, it's called a patent ductus arteriosus.
PDA. A blood vessel connection between two great arteries. Everybody is born with it since it is necessary in fetal life and then it is closed after birth. If it persistent it may need to be closed if big enough.
Depends. In premature infants it is usually closed with medication (indomethacin). In the uncommon premature infant in which it does not work surgical ligation is required. Most pdas that are diagnosed in otherwise healthy children are closed with a catheter based device when they are over 2 years old.
PDA Age Dependent? Pda closure (age dependent) 1. Premature infants (medical therapy vs surgical ligation by a pediatric cardiothoracic surgeon) 2. Babies to adults: cath lab closure, using a coil or device. Many different types and sizes of coils are available, delivered from a small catheter which is inserted in the femoral artery or vein. Another option for large pdas is an aga PDA device or vascular plug.
Device closure. Pdas can almost always be closed in the catheterization laboratory using a small metal coil or device that can be placed with a catheter placed in the vein or artery in the groin rather than a surgery. In premature infants, it can often be closed with a medication. If this fails, surgery is most often done since they are too small for catheter-based methods. Soon there may be smaller systems.
Echocardiogram. An ultrasound of the heart, called an echocardiogram, can detect patent ductus arteriosus. This would generally be done by a cardiologist.
PE, CXR, Echo.. A physical exam, chest x-ray and, more importantly, an echocardiogram are the tests needed to diagnose a patent ductus arteriosus.