Can vary. Classic symptoms are chest tightness with shortness of breathe with exertion. Pts have sweating, nausea, and have left arm pain. Pts may also have jaw pain. The symptoms resolve with rest. However most pts dont have such clasic symptoms. Diabetics may have no symptoms at all and they are among the highest risk group. Women tend to have atypical symptoms too. If your concerned w/ risk factors see ur dr.
For Most Events None. It has been known, for over 7 decades, that artery disease typically begins ~age 7, yet remains asymptomatic for decades; artery walls thicken & enlarge, not narrow. Events, including stenosis (narrowing), result from plaque rupture & clots. For most events (including ~5/6 heart attacks), there are no symptoms (including non-diabetics) even though damage done; e.g. Basis for most chf. Avoid ds.
Functional vs. .. Tests for CAD are classified as functional / physiologic vs anatomic ie the mere presence of ateriosclerosis. Heartcath and cta of coronaries (cat scan) can demonstrate blockages but not tell if its causing the pts symptoms. A stress echo or Cardiolite gives physiologic information and can point to the culpret. Usually both are employed to find and fix the pts blockage responsible for their symptom.
IVUSBest, OthersPoor. Ivus (intravascular ultrasound) is the most effective; sees disease in the wall of arteries from inside out (great for research; not so good clinically). Next best is ultrasound of major arteries near body surface in bifurcations, e.G carotid bulb & bifurcation. Other tests, while commonly done, are not good in that they do not detect the disease until after it has become quite advanced.
Cad. Risk factor modification, BP control, and using medications that improve the supply-demand balance in coronary blood (and hence oxygen) supply.
Minimize the Drivers. Optimize lipoprotein concentrations (HDL & LDL concentration, see NMR particle test, NOT cholesterol), low normal blood glucose HbA1c <5.0, low normal BP, don't smoke, stay physically active, confront and resolve stress, etc. This is the best approach. Conventional methods: angioplasty, stents, bypass surgery, etc. Only partially treat the symptoms & further complicate the disease process!
Yes and no. Atherosclerosis is narrowing and hardening of the blood vessels. It occurs in people with high cholesterol, with hypertension and can run in families. Myocardial infarction is a " heart attack" caused by a decreased blood supply to the heart. The most common cause of myocardial infarction is coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis).
Spectrum. Some coronary disease is surface, non obstructing to significant degree. Most is atherosclerosis. Coronary atherosclerosis of significant degree can disrupt, thrombose, and cause a heart attack-ischemic insult which is myocardial infarction.
Arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is the usual cause for coronary artery disease. Myocardial infarction is usually caused by coronary artery disease (i.e. Arteriosclerosis). They are interrelated but arteriosclerosis is not myocardial infarction but it is the usual cause through coronary arteriosclerosis.
Coronary artery. Disease and arteriosclerosis are essentially to names for the same. You can have these without infarction. A myocardial infarction occurs when blood flow is abruptly interrupted in a certain coronary artery and heart muscle is not receiving adequate blood supply.
CAD. Is the same as arteriosclerosis, though arteriosclerosis can refer to sclerosing (scarring) of any artery, not just those in the heart. A myocardial infarction (commonly called a heart attack) occurs when there is complete cutoff of blood supply to some part of the heart muscles, usually due to underlying coronary artery disease.
Is coronary artery disease the same as arteriosclerosis and myocardial infarction? More specifically how are they related?
Essentially yes. Myocardial infarction is one of the complications of arterosclerosis.
HEART ATTACK. Coronary artery disease is disease of the arteries to your heart. Atherosclerosis is hardening of those arteries. Myocardial infarction is injury to your heart muscle because oxygen carrying blood could not get thru your diseased, hardened coronary arteries. = heart attack.