Are americans more or less likely to be accepted abroad if they try to learn/speak the language? I am going for surgery.

Likely. I hope that this is not repetitive, as I have tired to answer this question before. An american that arrives in any foreign location with some knowledge of the local culture and language shows respect and evidence of an effort made. You will not become an expert in a short time. You will likely find that the healthcare providers in the foreign setting will already have excellent english skills.