Describe signs, testing, causes, types and disadvantages in color vision deficiency?

Too broad. No disadvantage except you can't be a fighter pilot or work in navy and your clothes tend to clash.
Color blind. Many online tests available including ishihara color plates. There is congenital and acquired form. Often does not affect daily living. Patients may not know they have it. Here is an excellent article about how it affects jobs. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/23/jobs/when-colorblindness-cramps-careers.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.