What do urine tests check for? Just urinary tract infections?

Many things. There are many different urine tests. A typical urinalysis can check for the presence of blood, protein, evidence of infection, sugar, and products of bile metabolism. Other tests are more accurate for amounts of the above and can screen for presence of different drug types.
Here are some ... After detailed Hx + physical exam, urinalysis is done to suggest and confirm: UTI if bacteria, pus cells, & (+) nitrite; stone or tumor if only red blood cells & white blood cells; possible kidney disease if protein/albumin(+) with or without white blood cells; IC or OAB if all normal; seeing pear-shape moving parasites if trich, etc. Caution: take urine specimen as properly instructed so to...