Urine/blood. Most children with diabetes have type 1 and present with high blood sugar, very low Insulin and c-peptide and urine which is positive for glucose and ketones. A hba1c will be elevated, which is a marker of chronic blood sugar control extending over a few months back. If the child has diabetic ketoacidosis, labs will be followed hourly for glucose and electrolytes. Other blood tests are also done.
Glucose (sugar) leve. The primary diagnostic criteria is a fasting blood glucose (sugar) level over 125. If symptoms are present, a random sugar over 200 is diagnostic, or any sugar over 300. Glycated hemoglobin, aka hga1c, over 6.5% is another criteria, and can be helpful in determining how long the high blood sugars have been present.