Is a pathology report following the removal of a tumor part of the surgical protocol?

Yes. All specimens removed at the time of surgery must be sent for pathologic evaluation. While the report comes separately from the operative report which describes what was found at the procedure and how it was removed, the pathology report describes the gross appearance of the specimen followed by the microscopic appearance and then a histologic diagnosis.
Yes. After a tumor is removed in surgery it ends up in a pathology laboratory. There a pathologist will review clinical details, review the gross specimen, and will review microscopic slides stained with "H&E". Additional laboratory tests may be ordered so that the pathologist can provide a report with comprehensive details including possible additional therapy, surgery, and/or radiation therapy.
For final diagnosis. Pathology is for final diagnosis, and is not part of the surgical protocol.