What is diffuse disc bulge, central and right foraminal/extraforaminal protrusions, ligamentum flavum thickening?

Changes in the spine. As gravity wields its unwavering downward and compressive force against the soft tissue components of our spine many of us begin to experience the MRI findings you cited.These include bulging of the cushions or discs, protrusion of disc material into the center of the spine and sides and thickening of some of the compressed ligaments. Thus extension based exercise & core strengthening are advised.