What type of kidney condition causes quick and painful water retention of the hands after drinking only one can of caffeinated soda?

None. Unfortunately, they are unrelated. Do you have any other associated symptoms, as this may not be a kidney problem?
Fluid retention. I do not believe there is a connection between any kidney condition and painful quick water retention into hands after 12 oz soda; if you had nephrotic syndrome, water retention is generalized and hands swell, but one 12 oz drink would not bring on major symptoms.