What type of autoimmune disease attacks only brain cells and neurons without antibodies in blood work?

Several. The best known, of course in multiple sclerosis, but also, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis in childhood, and a series of immune encephalitis conditions can be found. To date, no good blood test exists for MS, or ADEM, but one variant, neuromyelitis optica, can be confirmed via an anti-aquaporin study.
Autoimmune brain dz. Answers to your question include multiple sclerosis, rasmussen encephalitis, sometimes paraneoplastic diseases. Vasculitis conditions are numerous - some are not named. These attack blood vessels though, not neurons. Many of them have no blood test marker.
Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated/autoimmune disease that attack the myelin sheathes covering nerve axons but is not the result of an antibody-based autoimmune attack. It is thought to be the result of an attack by activated T-cells.

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What specific Autoimmune diseases attack brain cells and neurons causing a dramatic effect to neurotransmitters, hormones and the function of the brain

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What specific" autoimmune diseases attacks and targets our brain cells, neurons, nerves, so we lose our emotions, feelings, empathy, inhibitions, ?

Lupus number one. The commonest cause of autoimmune cerebritis is central nervous system lupus. It is treatable. Another cause is bechets syndrome and there is a very rare form that is idiopathic, meaning cause is unknown. But lupus remains the commonest. Read more...

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