Is their a time frame that women with diabetes should follow for check-ups such as gynecological exams?

Same as non-DM. Basically same as non diabetic women, although you should personally pay more attention to any symptoms down there that might suggest an infection (discharge or rash or pain on urination).
Yes. For adults with type 2 diabetes, in general, annual eye exams, annual lab tests, and regular physical exams (including the feet). Regular dental care and annual flu shots are also recommended. More frequent visits may be necessary to ensure good control of blood pressure, lipids, and blood sugars. Cardiac screening frequency varies depending upon specific pt issues.