Little effect. Skin is a wonderful, protective barrier and will not allow Lidocaine to penetrate to block the discomfort from an injection of any sort. You could ice the injection site prior to needle insertion which can help. The discomfort is minimal however.
Just the skin. It depends on what concentration you apply. There are local anesthetic preparations made for skin application. Also, it takes time for the absorption through the skin. If applied in high enough concentrations and allowed to absorb, it helps take away the sharp sensation but you will still feel the burning undert the skin and in the muscle.
Hep B vaccine. Three doses of hepatitis B Are recommended.
Inadequate. 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine have a 90% to 95% efficacy for preventing hepatitis B infection.
Hepatitis B vaccine. Hep b vaccine helps prevent liver infection (hepatitis) from the hepatitis b virus which can induce severe disease that can be fatal. Vaccinating newborns with hep b is most useful in situations where a pregnant mom has the disease but has not had prenatal testing for it and also moms who have tested positive but have no acute disease.
Prevention. Hep b vaccine is used to prevent one from getting hepatitis b liver infection. By proctecting from infection you also are decreasing the possibility of liver cancer in later life which often happens as a result of infection.
Recommendations. Even though hep b vaccine can be started at any age as the infant is not exposed to hep b virus in infancy, but like other vaccines recommended to be given are based on the recommendation of cdc and american academy of pediatrics the reason the first dose is given in the hospital after birth is to make you aware that baby needs to continue with 2nd and 3rd dose and other childhood vaccines.
Effectiveness. Having seen a 9 mo in liver failure from Hep B, this is an issue dear to me. The 1st studies were done in Polynesians in Hawaii who often passed it to their newborns. The vaccine was able to stop this, reduce the disease including related liver cancer & liver transplants. Since giving it at birth is effective, there is no reason to wait. That only allows chance to get the disease before it is given.
Not necessarily. Hep b vaccination is a multi-dose vaccination. Generally follow-up testing is not required. A small number of people do not respond very well and may not develop detectable antibody and could benefit from additional doses. Your employer may require follow-up testing to see if there is sufficient response, though it is not medically necessary.
NotUsualy ButSomeMay. Usually proof of three doses of Hep B will be acceptable Some employers may require a follow up blood test if u are in a very high risk job.