When I swallow certain foods my soft palate becomes very sore and gets little bumps all over it. Do I have some sort of food allergy?

Possibly... Does it happen with the same types of food, or food that has certain ingredients or spices? If so, you may have an allergy. You can always be tested.
Food allergy. It sure sounds like it. I recommend you keep a log of everything you eat or drink and when you have the reaction. Avoid the things you react to. Consider getting tested, too. .
Acidic. is the food you are eating acidic?? That can sometimes cause the sores.
Sounds like it. Major concern is airway swelling as an allergic response. If you have any trouble breathing or swallowing, head for the ER. In the meantime an appointment with an Allergist is a good idea.