Is there a screening test for esophageal cancer?

Upper endoscopy. We do not perform routine screening for esophageal cancer. In japan where the risk of esophageal cancer is higher there is greater use of this test for screening. When patients do have symptoms of difficulty swallowing, pain on swallowing, hemoptysis (vomiting blood), anemic for unknown cause, heart burn not responsive to medication, episgastric pain (pain upper mid abdomen), endoscopy is needed.
Not really. Not like breast (mammogram), prostate (psa blood test) or colon (colonoscopy). However, patients at high risk for adenocarcinoma, i.e. Longstanding acid reflux, should receive a screening endoscopy to evaluate their esophagus.
Yes. Endoscopy is used to screen for esophageal cancer in certain high risk individuals where chronic acid reflux has changed the type of cells lining the esophagus (Barrett's Esophagus)
Generally, no... Generally, no. Screening of unknown/asymptomatic patients is not routine. The major screening is by endoscopy (scope down esophagus). It is not used in a "routine" manner per se, rather, it is used to investigate symptoms or follow-up longterm condition like gerd, etc... This link may help: http://www.Cancer.Net/cancer-types/esophageal-cancer/risk-factors.