Staging is based on physical examination, ct scans, etc.
: we then use the TNM
system to classify. In brief: tumor (t1 to T3
) based on increasing size, T4 is spread to adjacent stuctures, n: nodes (n0 - no nodal spread, n1 - around rectum, n2- groin, n3-multiple sites, m: metastases m0 - no, m1 yes. Stage i and ii have no nodal spread, stage iii is T4 or nodal spread, stage IV is metastatic.